- Using less energy
- Transitioning to renewables
- Increasing flexibility and storage
- Developing carbon capture and storage
In 2019, 72% of Devon’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to energy use. This energy is used as electricity (13%) and the burning of fossil fuel in buildings for heat (19%), transport (30%), manufacturing and construction (6%), and agricultural, forestry and fishing machinery (4%).1
Spend on energy in the County is estimated to be £3.4 billion each year, the majority of which leaves the area because Devon imports most of its energy requirements.16
This section describes what needs to happen to achieve net-zero energy supply based on the Climate Change Committee’s Further Ambition Scenario. It then introduces goals for overcoming issues identified during the Thematic Hearings and the public Call for Evidence as barriers to achieving net-zero in Devon. Actions are then proposed to achieve the goals.
8.2 The Change Needed
Four main changes are needed to decarbonise the energy we all use:
- Use less energy. We need to reduce demand for energy and use energy as efficiently as possible to minimise the need for new generating capacity.
- Transition to renewables. The energy used needs to be from renewable sources.
- Increase flexibility and storage. We need to store energy and use it more flexibly.
- Develop carbon capture and storage. Where unavoidable fossil fuels continue to be used, the carbon emitted needs to be captured and permanently stored to prevent it from reaching the atmosphere.
These are described in more detail below.
8.2.1 Use Less Energy
Using only the energy we need will reduce the amount of new energy infrastructure required to meet net-zero. This will keep the cost of transition down and with less development there will be less potential for negative effects to the environment and our wellbeing. By keeping the need for new energy infrastructure to a minimum we can meet our energy needs whilst creating places where people and nature thrive.
A high take-up of energy-efficiency measures is needed across our 581,000 homes and 53,000 commercial and industrial premises. These technological changes must be combined with enhancing awareness and understanding of energy issues so that our behaviour avoids wasting energy and uses it more efficiently. These measures are discussed in detail in the Built Environment section of this Plan.
Using less energy to meet our transport requirements starts with reducing the need to travel. For essential journeys we should consider using active travel (walking and cycling), buses and trains, or shared mobility schemes including car share. Due to Devon’s low population density, private vehicle use will continue, especially for journeys within rural areas and between rural areas and towns. For these, electric vehicles will reduce energy demand as they are over four times more efficient than a petrol or diesel car.2 However, it is important that petrol and diesel vehicles are not just swapped for electric vehicles without considering alternatives because electric vehicles still place demands on natural resources (such as cobalt in battery production), contribute to micro plastics (e.g. from tyre dust) and miss the opportunity to make us more active.3 These measures are discussed in detail in the Transport section of this Plan.
8.2.2 Transition to Renewables
In 2018, 32% of Devon’s electricity was provided from renewable sources within the County. This is equal to just 7% of the total energy we used in Devon.4 The CCC recommend this rises to 80% by 2030 and 100% by 2050. Under the government’s Energy Security Strategy, published in 2022, 95% of UK electricity will come from ‘low-carbon sources’ by 2030. This includes plans to increase wind, hydrogen and solar energy production.5
The Climate Change Committee’s Further Ambition Scenario for 20506 principally advocates the electrification of our energy needs for low-level heat and transport. This includes removing existing petrol and diesel cars and vans from the roads, and using heat pumps for heating buildings (instead of natural gas or oil). Hydrogen is expected to heat some homes and contribute to powering heavy goods vehicles, off-road and agricultural machinery and some industrial processes. It will be important to focus innovation on the production of so-called ‘green hydrogen’, produced by a process called electrolysis powered by renewable electricity, rather than ‘blue hydrogen’ which involves reacting natural gas with steam and subsequently relies on carbon capture and storage technology to make it low carbon.
This transition to electrification is estimated to grow Devon’s electricity consumption by around 2.5 times 2018 levels. If Devon were to generate all this demand within its boundary then approximately eight times7 more renewable electricity generating capacity would need to be installed on buildings and through field-scale projects if this demand were to be met from solar photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind.
In reality this increased need for new electricity capacity will be met in part through nationally significant infrastructure, such as offshore wind farms. Upscaling innovative technologies, such as wave and tidal power, could help in the future and we should be ambitious for their deployment, but they are not developed enough to help address climate change in the short and medium term. Devon is a maritime county and shipyards at Appledore and Plymouth offer marine engineering capabilities and skills that are readily transferable into offshore wind and marine-energy technologies.8 Floating Offshore Wind in the Celtic Sea has the potential to create 3,000 jobs and £682m in supply chain opportunities for Wales and the South West of England by 2030, but this will only be fully realised if local companies are involved at the early stages of project development. The Devon Climate Emergency partners can raise awareness of supply opportunities amongst local businesses, facilitate the provision of onshore infrastructure (such as enhanced port facilities, cable landings and electricity distribution equipment) and by continuing and extending regional partnerships innovating in this sector to ensure the South West has a strong voice in key decisions with national policy makers.9
In the case of buildings, the use of heat pumps will not be appropriate for all building types and they operate best in buildings with high levels of energy efficiency and air tightness. Some buildings, such as heritage homes, will be difficult to upgrade. Low carbon alternatives to heat pumps are available; biomass boilers using wood chips or wood pellets as fuel can be suitable for buildings not connected to the natural gas network, and a hybrid heating system could be suitable for buildings on the natural gas network.10 Hybrid heating systems use a combination of a heat pump with a gas boiler. In this setup the heat pump provides the bulk of the base load while the gas boiler tops-up the heat requirement. There is a further opportunity for the gas to be derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural wastes and injected straight into the gas network – known as biogas. AD needs to be pursued carefully to ensure a strong focus on environmental benefits. The cultivation of maize, a popular energy crop, can displace food production, contribute to soil erosion, cause localised flooding issues and can require heavy doses of agro-chemicals when best practice is not followed.11 The priority must be to use local agricultural and food wastes that are unfit for human or animal consumption and do not require long distance haulage.
Beyond 2030 the UK Government indicates that hydrogen delivered through the existing natural gas network could become an alternative for buildings currently heated by natural gas from the grid. Further testing during the 2020s will establish the costs, benefits, safety, feasibility, air quality impacts and consumer experience of using hydrogen for heating.12
District heating (systems that distribute hot water, heated by centralised power plants, in a network of highly-insulated pipes to a collection of buildings) supplied by renewable energy will also be a helpful tool for achieving net-zero. These must be considered for large-scale new developments, designed from the outset, or retrofitted in areas of high heat density, such as industrial estates or urban centres.
Biomass fuel, hybrid systems, hydrogen and district heating systems, alongside nationally significant infrastructure, will all help reduce the need for new, onshore electricity generating capacity and the demand placed on the electricity grid.
8.2.3 Increase Flexibility and Electricity Storage
Some renewable energy technologies depend on weather and the seasons – most notably solar PV and wind turbines. Solar PV generates electricity during daylight hours and provides greater amounts of energy in the middle of the day and summer. Wind turbines generate electricity whenever the wind is blowing and generally more in autumn and winter. These periods of generation do not necessarily match times of higher demand for electricity, creating new challenges for distribution system operators.13
Making best use of renewable resources requires (a) matching the natural variability of renewable energy output with demand by creating smarter and more flexible generation and consumption, combined with (b) the ability to store more energy. The first solution is to offer new generators flexible connections that require generators to reduce their output at certain times of day when demand might be low or when other generators are already providing sufficient supply. A further solution is the roll out of smart meters that communicate real-time consumption to households and allow the introduction of flexible, real-time tariffs that (a) encourage changes in behaviour to use less energy, (b) improve efficiency and (c) use electricity when energy supply is higher and demand is lower. Storage solutions store energy when supply exceeds demand so that we can use it when we need it. Such storage solutions include (a) use of batteries connected to the electricity grid (which include ‘vehicle to grid’ whereby electric vehicles can be used to supply electricity back into the grid during times of high demand) and (b) the conversion of electrical energy into hydrogen.
Deploying flexibility services and storage technologies will reduce the amount of new renewable energy capacity required. This will make best use of the resource, reduce investment costs and avoid the need for fossil-fuel powered peaking plants to generate power when demand outstrips the instantaneous supply from renewables.
8.2.4 Develop Carbon Capture and Storage
The Committee on Climate Change believes that using carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology will be necessary for the UK to reach net-zero carbon.6 CCS technology captures carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels before it enters the atmosphere. It is compressed into a liquid for transportation and then stored in depleted oil and natural gas fields or suitable, deep geology. Large manufacturing and construction industries will need to switch their processes to low-carbon energy sources or make use of CCS technology wherever possible, although these industries only account for less than 1% of the County’s emissions. The Energy from Waste facilities in Devon (which emit 2% of Devon’s emissions) will also need to make use of CCS to decarbonise the electricity and heat they currently provide.
CCS can also be used to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by capturing the carbon dioxide emitted from using biomass (e.g. maize or willow) for energy. By doing so, between 70% and 100% (dependent on the type of feedstock) of the carbon dioxide that was absorbed from the atmosphere when the biofuel was growing is permanently captured14 to achieve net negative emissions. This ‘bioenergy with CCS’ is one of the pillars of the National Farmers’ Union’s net-zero goal for 204015 for agriculture. This approach can be used to offset emissions from other economic sectors that will find it very challenging to decarbonise, too.
8.3 Greenhouse Gas Outcomes
Figure 8.1 shows Devon’s GHG emissions arising from fossil fuels used by buildings, manufacturing and construction, transport and electricity consumption in the context of Devon’s total GHG emissions. The Figure also shows the projected reduction trajectory for these to 2050 as a result of the delivery of the CCC’s Further Ambition Scenario aided by the actions in this Plan. Emissions from these sectors in 2019 were 5.2Mt CO2e. Through the activities in this Plan, by 2050, the emissions from energy are expected to fall to 0.6Mt CO2e. These will become net-zero through activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The emissions from the energy used for agriculture, forestry and fishing are reported in the Food, Land and Sea section of this Plan to align with how the CCC report emissions data.
8.4 Other Opportunities and Benefits
- Profits from renewable energy schemes owned by Devon Climate Emergency partners and communities can be invested in other local carbon reducing activities e.g. domestic retrofit, electric vehicle charging points, habitat management for carbon sinks or tackling fuel poverty and supporting vibrant communities.
- Cohesive communities owning key infrastructure will become more self-sufficient with greater resilience.
- Innovation opportunities to make a more prosperous economy are available from offshore technologies (such as floating offshore wind) green hydrogen infrastructure and carbon capture and storage.
- The transition away from fossil fuels will support up to 192,000 jobs across Devon, Cornwall, Dorset and Somerset and provides an opportunity for skills development.16
- The increased use of smart energy systems could lead to lower bills for consumers who shift their consumption to cheaper times of day.
- The retention of spending on energy within Devon will avoid up to £3.4 billion each year leaving the local economy.16
- Reduced air pollution, levels of fuel poverty and greater use of active travel will bring public health benefits.3
8.5 Devon’s Goals to Meet Net-Zero
Devon has five goals relating to Energy for how we achieve net-zero.
8.5.1 Goal EA – A Shared Ambition For a Net-Zero-Carbon Energy System Is Agreed
The Joint LEP Energy Strategy16 prepared by the three Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEP) covering Cornwall, Devon, Somerset and Dorset sets a target for the percentage of the areas’ electricity consumption sourced from renewable technologies to rise to 80% by 2030 (in 2018 it was 32%) but acknowledges that social and political support provides localised challenges to deploying projects to meet this target.
Estimates of renewable energy generation potential in Devon suggest that the County has suitable land available (away from sensitive and protected areas) to meet its requirements and export to other areas.17 Becoming a green energy powerhouse and an exporter of clean energy is an aspiration for Devon and Somerset set by the Heart of the South West LEP in its Blueprint for Clean Growth.18
Currently, onshore wind farms and large-scale solar farms are the most affordable way to meet future demand for electricity.19 Onshore wind farms are the most efficient onshore renewable energy technology (due to their relatively small land footprint and their average generating hours). 89% of the Devon Climate Assembly members were supportive of more renewable energy generation in Devon, including onshore wind.
As shown in Section 8.2, the route to achieve a net-zero-carbon energy system is complex. The potential pathways need to be explored and tested with stakeholders and communities to identify the most appropriate and cost-effective preferred pathway and sequenced plan of proposed actions to achieve Devon’s net-zero goal.
Making It Happen
A Devon Energy Plan is needed to model Devon’s future energy system. This will guide and deploy low-carbon energy generation to transition 100% of energy needs away from fossil fuels, accounting for the energy efficiency and technological changes described in the other sections of this Carbon Plan (particularly Built Environment and Transport). It will signal to businesses and financial markets that Devon is ready to facilitate investment and will empower organisations, communities and individuals to be part of the transformation. It will show how Devon can contribute to implementing the Joint LEP Energy Strategy.
The preparation of the Energy Plan will involve a county-wide review of the potential renewable energy resource available for a variety of renewable electricity and heat technologies at different scales, including onshore wind. It will consider how the technologies might develop over the period to 2050. This resource potential would then be compared with the future energy consumption and demand requirements of Devon taking account of: population growth and the likely success of nationally significant energy projects, energy efficiency upgrades, electric-vehicle charging requirements, flexibility markets, storage technologies, longer-term green hydrogen opportunities, the opportunity for district heating to provide combined heat and power to new development, and relevant government incentives. The Energy Plan will need to be developed in partnership with the network operators.
E1. Develop an Energy Plan for Devon to deploy renewable energy generation to meet future energy needs. This must:
E1.1. Update assessments of the accessible renewable energy resources available in Devon.
E1.2. Identify opportunities for renewable energy and storage deployment on land owned or managed by Devon Climate Emergency partners.
E1.3. Identify locations for renewable energy and energy storage informed by the emerging Land Use Framework and environmental and social sensitivities.
E1.4. Explore opportunities to create economic benefit from offshore technologies along Devon’s two coastlines.
E1.5. Consider the role of nationally significant energy infrastructure (including that developed outside Devon), flexibility markets, and storage technologies, and how these could change the total energy required to be generated in Devon.
E1.6. Consider the potential role and feasibility of a green-hydrogen industrial cluster.
E1.7. Appraise the potential for low carbon heat networks in new development to make best use of existing heat producers e.g. the Energy from Waste facility in Exeter, and as a retrofit opportunity in off-gas areas.
E2. Look to allocate locations for renewable and low-carbon energy initiatives in Local Plans and Neighbourhood Plans, ensuring community involvement.
8.5.2 Goal EB – Communities are Driving the Energy Transition
The Devon Climate Assembly emphasised the need for community benefit from energy projects. The vision and determination of trail-blazing communities has led to there being more community energy organisations in Devon than any other county in the UK.20 Offers of start-up funding and skills support since 2011 from Devon Climate Emergency partners has played its part, too. These organisations are generating enough electricity to power over 1,100 homes, have invested more than £14m and created 33 full time jobs.21 They own and operate various sizes of installation, from building to field scale, and have ambitions to expand. Some are also involved in offering local energy advice services. Community-owned electricity generation helps communities actively participate in the drive to net-zero, share in the benefits and guide how profits are reinvested. In turn, community ownership can drive support for local projects and the scale of change needed to achieve net-zero.
Individuals, organisations and businesses can help with the transition by using less energy and improving the efficiency of buildings (to reduce the amount of new renewable energy generation required), moving from fossil fuels towards lower carbon heating and installing renewable electricity generation. They can also stimulate demand for new renewable energy projects by investing in community energy projects and switching to green electricity and gas tariffs.
Making It Happen
Communities must be closely involved in the development of the Devon Energy Plan and community ownership opportunities should be prioritised in its delivery.
The National Planning Policy Framework only allows wind development: (i) in areas identified as suitable within a Local or Neighbourhood Plan; and (ii) if, following consultation, local impacts have been fully addressed and the proposals have community backing. This has made it challenging to build new wind turbines – even those that would be community owned. Previous experience in Devon has shown that the planning system enables vocal minority opposition to dictate decisions, despite evidence of wider public support, which cannot continue in a climate emergency where urgent action is required. 87% of the Devon Climate Assembly supported Devon working with government to amend national planning legislation to remove the requirement for complete community support for development planning applications for onshore wind turbines, particularly where these projects are community led.
In the meantime, communities must continue to be supported with offers of training and resources to develop more locally-owned energy schemes, and the local planning system should be encouraging. Devon Climate Emergency partners and other large energy users can support the viability of community-owned energy schemes by offering favourable land and rooftop leases to community energy organisations and by committing to purchase community-generated electricity and heat. The Devon Energy Collective, an umbrella company operated by the town-based community energy organisations, has been established to facilitate this.
For people looking to switch to a renewable energy tariff, it can be difficult to understand which tariffs are having most effect at creating demand for more renewable energy and so advice on selecting a tariff is required.
E3. Provide support for communities wishing to develop their own energy infrastructure.
E4. Local Plan updates will look to include policies that give positive weight to renewable and low-carbon energy initiatives which have clear evidence of local community involvement and leadership.
E5. Provide advice on choosing genuine renewable-energy tariffs.
Needing action beyond Devon
E6. Work with government to amend national planning legislation to make it more straightforward for onshore wind developments to get planning consent, especially those that are community owned.
Yealm Community Energy
Based in South Devon and a member of the Devon Community Energy Network, Yealm Community Energy (YCE) is a not-for-profit social enterprise, run by local people. It is working to offer the opportunity to invest in locally generated, clean electricity, with profits going to a Community Fund. YCE is looking to acquire one and perhaps two solar farms in its locality by securing loans and offering community shares to raise the necessary funds.
Newton Downs is the first community solar farm and it generates enough renewable electricity to power the equivalent of 2,000 homes. The project was developed by Good Energy with the understanding that it would be offered for sale to YCE. YCE is now part-owner with Community Owned Renewable Energy (CORE). With local support YCE hope to own it completely in 2021.
The second solar farm at Creacombe generates enough power for the equivalent of 2,500 homes. The solar farm will be managed to encourage wildlife, with the creation of species-rich wildflower meadows around the panels and associated beehives.
Financial surpluses from the solar farms will be paid annually to the Community Fund to benefit the five local parishes bordering the Yealm and Erme estuaries and is being used to fund local environmental improvements and low carbon energy projects. The value of the community fund may reach £45,000 per year with the overall monetary benefit to the community over the two projects’ lifetimes of up to £3 million. In 2020 the Fund provided £10,000 for coronavirus relief.
8.5.3 Goal EC – Constraints on the Electricity Grid are Overcome
The electricity grid was designed for centralised power stations that deliver electricity into the national grid for direct distribution to consumers. Over the past decade, the way the grid is used has started to change reflecting the increased amount of decentralised electricity generation. This has been brought about by hundreds of thousands of renewable energy installations. At present, there can be more renewable electricity being supplied to the grid from solar PV farms in the middle of the day during the summer than there is local demand for the electricity.
The changing use of the network means that parts of the grid often require upgrading when new projects connect. These upgrades add to project costs and can cause queues for new connections. Such costs are shared between Western Power Distribution (the network operator in the South West of England) and the developer of the new energy installation. Upgrades will enable multiple new projects to connect in the same location but the cost burden falls most heavily on the first project. This potentially undermines financial viability, deterring investment.22 Western Power Distribution has an online register for developers to log their interest in working with other developers to share costs but take-up has been mixed because of the challenges in aligning the timing of individual projects.
Making It Happen
Using the grid smartly and flexibly can alleviate some constraint issues while providing other benefits. Options described in section 8.2.3 include offering new generators flexible connections; encouraging us as energy users to change when we use power; and by incorporating storage technology into the grid. These initiatives are still in their infancy but there are examples of flexibility and storage services already operating in the South West, the expansion of which offers investable business opportunities.
Western Power Distribution is working with the regulator, Ofgem, to examine the regulatory changes needed to allow generators to share the upgrade costs. Regional partners are engaged in conversations with government through the Joint LEP Energy Strategy and the Heart of the South West LEP Blueprint for Clean Growth. Longer-term, the government has expressed its intention to establish a new Future System Operator – a public corporation as an expert, impartial body with an important duty to facilitate net zero whilst also maintaining a resilient, and affordable system.23 Devon Climate Emergency partners must continue to engage with government on addressing this issue.
E7. Test approaches to making the energy system smarter and more flexible.
Needing action beyond Devon
E8. Work with government to enable timely and cost-effective grid upgrades.
8.5.4 Goal ED – Low Carbon Energy Becomes Affordable and is Attractive for Investors
Making It Happen
The CCC has highlighted that progress on low-carbon heating has been slow nationally.6 Until March 2022, subsidy support for renewable heat was provided by national government under the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). By 2019 the RHI had only supported 18% of the new heat capacity it was designed to facilitate by 2020, and the installer network has contracted by 16% since its launch in 2011. The Net-Zero Task Force learned from the Thematic Hearing on Energy and Waste that air source heat pumps never attracted sufficient support from the RHI to make them financially competitive against natural gas boilers. This has meant that households contemplating replacing an ageing gas boiler had limited financial incentive to invest in air source heat pumps. In 2022, the RHI was replaced by the Boiler Upgrade Scheme (this offers financial incentives to switch a natural gas or oil boiler to a low-carbon alternative), and a Green Gas Support Scheme (to incentivise the injection of biomethane into the existing gas grid, which will provide a low-carbon heating option for households on the gas grid).
District heating can enable developers of larger housing and commercial sites to meet the energy and carbon requirements of building regulations at a lower cost than installing boilers or heat pumps in individual buildings.25 The investment opportunity for district heating schemes nevertheless needs to be attractive enough to developers to balance against the perceived risks, such as: whether building occupants will accept communal heat; uncertainty over the reliability of heat sources; and the new contracting mechanisms with which the developer may have little experience.26 District heating networks have been deployed in new developments to the east of Exeter at Monkerton and Cranbrook. Other opportunities southwest of Exeter and in the city centre are being explored. Viability issues still need to be overcome for the technology to be used more widely. Government’s Heat Networks Investment Project that has offered support to heat networks since 2018 will be replaced by the Heat Network Transformation Programme from 2022. This will include the opportunity to make use of waste-heat from industrial installations, such as Devon’s energy from waste facilities.
The new government schemes to support renewable heat are welcomed but continued dialogue with government will be necessary to feedback local experience of accessing grants to ensure they are appropriate and effective. Ensuring people are aware of the schemes and have the opportunity to apply them to their own buildings will be a critical role for the Devon Climate Emergency partners and community energy organisations.
Smaller-Scale Renewable Electricity
Since the closure of the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme in April 2019, there has been no subsidy for small-scale renewable electricity schemes (under 5 Mega-Watts (MW) in capacity). The Net-Zero Task Force heard from the Thematic Hearing on Energy and Waste that the minimum acceptable rate of return for investors is rarely met either for domestic rooftop solar PV, smaller solar farms, hydro and anaerobic digestion. This has meant that there has been little addition to renewable energy capacity in Devon recently. In fact, the growth rate of renewable energy capacity in the County has been declining since 2015, when the FiT began to be reduced (Figure 8.2).
Large-scale schemes over 5MW in capacity can access an alternative subsidy scheme called Contracts for Difference but the large size of these developments is not always suitable. This is a particular issue within Devon because of its large areas of valued and protected landscapes.
National support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects under 5MW need to be reintroduced to return to the growth rates in renewable energy capacity in Devon seen before the demise of the FiT.
Needing action beyond Devon
E9. Work with government to ensure effective incentives are available for the use of renewable heat and waste heat from industrial and commercial facilities, including waste Energy Recovery Facilities.
E10. Work with government to reintroduce support mechanisms for smaller-scale renewable electricity generation.
8.5.5 Goal EE – Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is Piloted on Industrial Facilities
The first large-scale CCS plant was opened in 1996 in Norway and there are now 18 facilities in operation globally, but the technology is yet to be proven in the UK.27 National government has committed to deploy CCS in at least two sites by 2030, most likely in coordinated clusters around centres of cement, chemicals, steel and iron manufacturing.28
Making It Happen
Devon does not have clusters of the industry types the government is targeting for the first phases of CCS deployment, so piloting of CCS is unlikely to occur in the County over the next decade. However, longer-term, the Devon Climate Emergency partners should ensure that the government is aware of Devon’s ambition to see CCS technology fitted to appropriate installations in the County, such as Energy Recovery Facilities.
Needing action beyond Devon
E11. Remain engaged with government funding opportunities to pilot carbon capture and storage technology on industrial facilities in Devon.
8.6 Summary of the Actions
Figure 8.3 shows the reference number and text of each of the Energy Supply actions in this Plan. The anticipated start and duration of each action is shown on the right hand side of the diagram.
The actions with their duration highlighted in red in Figure 8.3 have been identified as a priority through two processes. Firstly, the Net Zero Task Force assessed each action’s potential to contribute to significant emissions reductions and the likelihood they can be implemented in a timely fashion. Secondly, some actions were highlighted as being important by the respondents to the public consultation.
For more detail, including who can help to deliver these actions, see the full action table.
Delivering the actions in this section of the Plan will help to achieve the milestones in Figure 8.4 below. These milestones reflect the Climate Change Committee’s Further Ambition Scenario.
1 Mitchell A. et al. (2020) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report – Devon, Plymouth, Torbay 2019. Centre for Energy and Environment, University of Exeter. Available at: https://devonclimateemergency.org.uk/studies-and-data/devons-carbon-footprint/
2 US Department of Energy (Unknown), Where the Energy Goes: Electric Cars. Available at: https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv-ev.shtml and Where the Energy Goes: Gasoline Vehicles. Available at: https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml, Accessed 30th August 2020
3 Morgan,J. (2020) Electric vehicles: the future we made and the problem of unmaking it, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 44 (4), pp953–977. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/beaa022
4 Data calculated by the Net Zero Task Force based on Regen (2019) Renewable Energy Progress Report for Devon 2017 to 2018. Available at: https://www.devon.gov.uk/energyandclimatechange/renewable-energy and BEIS (2019) Total final energy consumption at regional and local authority level 2005 to 2017. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/total-final-energy-consumption-at-regional-and-local-authority-level
5 BEIS (2022) British Energy Security Strategy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/british-energy-security-strategy/british-energy-security-strategy
6 Climate Change Committee (2019), Net-Zero – The UK’s Contribution to Stopping Global Warming. Available at https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/net-zero-the-uks-contribution-to-stopping-global-warming/
7 Preliminary calculations by the Net-Zero Task Force
8 Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Local Enterprise Partnership (2018) Floating Offshore Wind in the Great South West
9 Regen (2022) Floating Offshore Wind Opportunity Study for the Heart of the South West. Available at: https://heartofswlep.co.uk/understanding-our-economy/flow/
10 Navigant (2020), Benefits of Hybrid Heat Systems in a Low Carbon Energy System. Reference No. 214662. Available at: https://www.wwutilities.co.uk/media/3858/benefits-of-hybrid-heating-systems.pdf
11 Soil Association (2015), Runaway Maize – Subsidised Soil Destruction. Available at: https://www.soilassociation.org/media/4671/runaway-maize-june-2015.pdf
12 BEIS (2021), UK Hydrogen Strategy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-hydrogen-strategy
13 Western Power (2018), The Future of Our Electricity Network – Consultation to Engage Communities in Future DSO Strategy. Available at: https://www.westernpower.co.uk/downloads/5369
14 Fajardy, M. et al. (2019), BECCS Deployment: A Reality Check. Grantham Institute, Imperial College, London. Available at https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/grantham-institute/public/publications/briefing-papers/BECCS-deployment—a-reality-check.pdf
15 NFU (2019) Achieving Net-Zero, Farming’s 2040 Goal. Available at: https://www.nfuonline.com/nfu-online/business/regulation/achieving-net-zero-farmings-2040-goal/
16 Carbon Trust (2019), Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, Dorset and Heart of the South West Local Enterprise Partnership’s Joint LEP Energy Strategy Framework. Available at https://dorsetlep.s3.amazonaws.com/Strategic%20Sites/HotSW,%20Dorset,%20CIoS%20Joint%20LEP%20Energy%20Strategy%20Framework.pdf
17 Lash, D. et al. (2020) Net Zero Devon, Plymouth and Torbay. Centre for Energy and the Environment, University of Exeter. Available at: https://www.devonclimateemergency.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/DPT-net-zero-report-v1-140820.pdf
18 Heart of the South West LEP (2021), Blueprint for Clean Growth. Available at: https://heartofswlep.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/HotSW-LEP-Blueprint-for-Clean-Growth-Final.pdf
19 BEIS (2020), Electricity Generation Costs 2020. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/911817/electricity-generation-cost-report-2020.pdf
20 Regen (2018), Devon Community Energy Impact Report, Regen, commissioned by Devon County Council. Available at: https://www.regen.co.uk/publications/devon-community-energy-impact-report-2018/
21 The average UK home uses 12,000kWh of gas and 2,900kWh of electricity. This totals 14,900kWh of energy. Community energy organisations in Devon generate 17,431 MWh of electricity. 17,431/14,900 = 1170 houses.
22 Ofgem (2016) Unlocking the Capacity of the Electricity Networks. Available at: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/ofgem-publications/111164
23 Ofgem (Unknown) Future System Operation. https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/energy-policy-and-regulation/policy-and-regulatory-programmes/future-system-operation-fso
24 Regen (2019), Decade to Make a Difference Series: The Decarbonisation of Heat. Available at: https://www.regen.co.uk/publications/decarbonisation-of-heat/
25 A. Rowson and A. Norton (2015), Wolborough Urban Extension Newton Abbot – An Initial Feasibility Assessment of Site Wide District Heating and Combined Heat and Power, Centre for Energy and the Environment, Internal Document 900
26 Department for Energy and Climate Change (2013), Research into Barriers to Deployment of District Heating Networks. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/191542/Barriers_to_deployment_of_district_heating_networks_2204.pdf
27 Grantham Research Institute (2018), What is Carbon Capture and Storage and What Role Can it Play in Tackling Climate Change? Available at: https://www.lse.ac.uk/granthaminstitute/explainers/what-is-carbon-capture-and-storage-and-what-role-can-it-play-in-tackling-climate-change/
28 BEIS (2020), Carbon Capture, Usage and Storage. A Government Response on Potential Business Models for Carbon Capture, Usage and Storage. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/909706/CCUS-government-response-business-models.pdf